Some nouns with an “s” at the end are considered as plural nouns. However, not all plural nouns have an “s” at the end. There are nouns that need to be changed the one/two/three letters in the end or else nothing to change at all. To know more about it, read this and share to your friends who want to learn the English language.

Get ready and catch all these important information about the plural rules which absolutely help you out in constructing a sentence and pluralizing each noun.


1. To make the singular noun plural, just add an “s” to the end.


Singular Plural
frog frogs
tree trees


2. Add “es” if the singular noun ends in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z.


Singular Plural
bus buses
kiss kisses
wish wishes
tax taxes
blitz blitzes



3. Add “s” if the noun ends in “y” and the letter before “y” is a vowel.


Singular Plural
key keys
holiday holidays


4. Change “y” to “i” and add “es” if the noun ends in “y” and the letter before “y” is consonant.


Singular Plural
story stories
city cities


5. Add “ves” if the noun ends in “f” or “fe.” Just remove the “f/fe.”


Singular Plural
loaf loaves
wolf wolves

Exceptions: belief – beliefs, chef – chefs, roof – roofs, cliff – cliffs, chief – chiefs.


6. Add “es” if the noun ends in “o.”


Singular Plural
tomato tomatoes
hero heroes

Exceptions: halo – halos, photo – photos, piano – pianos.


7. Change the noun that ends in “us” to “i.”


Singular Plural
focus foci
cactus cacti


8. Change the noun that ends in “on” to “a.”


Singular Plural
criterion criteria
phenomenon phenomena


9. Change the noun that ends in “is” to “es.”


Singular Plural
ellipsis ellipses
analysis analyses


10. There are nouns that are spelled the same even in plural forms.


Singular Plural
sheep sheep
deer deer
aircraft aircraft


11. There are nouns that become plural by changing the spelling in other ways than adding an “s” or “es” to the end of the word.


Singular Plural
foot feet
mouse mice
person people
child children


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